To understand the pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments of Sanggou bay, the contents and enrichment of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) in surface sediments of 21 stations in three seasons (summer, autumn and winter) in 2019 were investigated. At the same time, the potential ecological risk index method presented by Lars Hankanson was used to evaluate the ecological hazards of heavy metals in the surface sediment of Sanggou bay in different seasons. The results show the contents of heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment of Sanggou bay in three seasons are following the standard value of the first-class in China Marine Sediment Quality Standard. According to the increasing average coefficients, the pollution degree of Cu, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments of this area was similar in three seasons, and the order from high to low was Zn, Pb, Cu. Meanwhile, there are some differences in the regional distribution of the three heavy metals in different seasons, which may be caused by various environmental factors. Terrigenous input of pollutant is the main source of these three heavy metals in the surface sediments of this region. The results of potential ecological risk assessment showed the region as a whole was in a slight ecological risk grade. And the potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in Sanggou bay was in the following order: Pb>Cu>Zn. Thus, Pb was the primary potential ecological risk factor.