王友华, 秦华伟, 王秋莲, 吕浩然, 马浩阳, 梁生康, 郭皓. 2006-2020年渤海湾水质变化趋势分析和富营养化状况评价[J]. 海洋环境科学, 2023, 42(5): 693-703. DOI: 10.12111/j.mes.2023-x-0001
引用本文: 王友华, 秦华伟, 王秋莲, 吕浩然, 马浩阳, 梁生康, 郭皓. 2006-2020年渤海湾水质变化趋势分析和富营养化状况评价[J]. 海洋环境科学, 2023, 42(5): 693-703. DOI: 10.12111/j.mes.2023-x-0001
WANG Youhua, QIN Huawei, WANG Qiulian, LYU Haoran, MA Haoyang, LIANG Shengkang, GUO Hao. Evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of water quality and eutrophication in Bohai Bay during 2006-2020[J]. Chinese Journal of MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, 2023, 42(5): 693-703. DOI: 10.12111/j.mes.2023-x-0001
Citation: WANG Youhua, QIN Huawei, WANG Qiulian, LYU Haoran, MA Haoyang, LIANG Shengkang, GUO Hao. Evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of water quality and eutrophication in Bohai Bay during 2006-2020[J]. Chinese Journal of MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, 2023, 42(5): 693-703. DOI: 10.12111/j.mes.2023-x-0001

2006-2020年渤海湾水质变化趋势分析和富营养化状况评价

Evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of water quality and eutrophication in Bohai Bay during 2006-2020

  • 摘要: 本文分析了我国自2006年实施污染物总量控制到2020年渤海综合治理攻坚战的15年时间,渤海湾陆源总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、化学需氧量(COD)的入海通量和海域水质变化趋势,应用压力−状态−响应法评估了渤海湾的富营养化状况。近15年来,渤海湾TN、TP和COD的年入海通量整体呈波动下降趋势,分别下降了48%、55%和32%,但入海通量的年际波幅较大,相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为35%、66%和27%。相应地,近15年渤海湾海域溶解无机氮(DIN)和溶解无机磷(DIP)年均浓度整体呈下降趋势,分别降低44%和35%,RSD分别为25%和24%。受入海河流输入影响,污染物浓度呈现湾底部(河口区)高、湾中央和湾口低的分布特征。海域叶绿素a (Chl a)和底层溶解氧(DO)浓度则分别降低32%和升高14%,RSD分别为16%和7%。近15年渤海湾富营养化较为严重,但2015-2020年,渤海湾的富营养化程度有所缓解,但仍在“差”和“中”等级间波动。分析表明,实施陆源入海污染物总量控制计划以来,渤海湾水质污染和富营养化状况整体有所改善,但成效并不稳固,亟须巩固。

     

    Abstract: In this paper, the fluxes of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen consumption (COD) into the sea and the water quality of the Bohai Bay were analyzed during the 15 years from the implementation of the total pollutant control plan in 2006 to the end of the comprehensive treatment of the Bohai Sea in 2020. The eutrophication status of the Bohai Bay was evaluated by pressure-state-response method. In the past 15 years, the annual fluxes of TN, TP and COD into the sea in Bohai Bay have fluctuated and decreased by 48%, 55% and 32%, but the interannual fluctuation amplitude of fluxes into the sea is large, with relative standard deviations (RSDS) of 35%, 66% and 27%, respectively. Accordingly, the average annual concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in Bohai Bay decreased by 44% and 35%, and RSDS were 25% and 24%, respectively, in the past 15 years. Under the influence of the river input into the sea, the pollutant concentration basically presents the distribution characteristics of high in the estuary area at the bottom of the bay and low in the middle and estuary of the bay. The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased by 32% and increased by 14%, and RSDS were 16% and 7%, respectively. In recent 15 years, the eutrophication in Bohai Bay was relatively serious, however, in the five years from 2015 to 2020, the eutrophication degree in Bohai Bay has eased somewhat, but it still fluctuates between “poor” and “medium” levels. This indicates that water pollution and eutrophication in Bohai Bay have improved since the implementation of the total amount of pollutants from land into the sea, but the results are not stable and need to be consolidated.

     

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